Experiments in Physics:

Physics is a practical project based on valid experimental support, analysis and rational discussion. It provides knowledge of the physical world. Experiment plays many roles in science. One of its important roles is to test theories and to provide the basis for scientific knowledge. Experiment can provide hints toward the structure or mathematical form of a theory and it can provide proof for survival of entities involved in our theories. Physics is called natural philosophy and is a science of energy and matter and relations between the two. Physics includes the study of material and energy as related to motions, heat, light, and force. Modern extensions of physics have extended to include nuclear physics, particle physics, plasma physics and cryogenics.

Create Lightening

Lightning

Lightning

Lightening is a beautiful and scary natural element. You can hear its thunder from miles and miles away and see it light up a completely dark sky. Now you can make your very own lightening in your own home.

Purpose

To create your own lightening using just a few simple tools and things that you can find already in your home or at the grocery store. You will be able to see and possibly hear the lightening as it’s created!

Required materials

  • Foil pie plate
  • Writing pen (ball point will work very well)
  • Tack
  • Sock (must be wool)
  • Styrofoam block
  • Glue
  • Video camera, if you have one
  • Notebook paper or journal

Experiment Time

About 30 to 60 minutes.

Procedure

  1. Gather your materials on the kitchen counter.
  2. Begin by placing your nail in the pie plate from the bottom up. The sharp point should be sticking out of the top of the pie plate.
  3. Place the pen in the pie plate. You may need to use a drop or two of glue to get the pen anchored really well. If you do use glue, let it dry before proceeding.
  4. After this do not touch the pie plate with your hands.
  5. Take the smack and rub the wedge of Styrofoam quickly. This will create the negative charge you need to create the lightening spark.
  6. Pick up the pie plate by holding on to the pen and push it down on top of the Styrofoam block so the tack is lodged into the Styrofoam and anchors it in place.
  7. Turn out the lights. If you have a video camera, you can film the lightening spark.
  8. Bring your hand towards the pie plate slowly, without touching it. This will complete the experiment.

Matchbox Guitar

Traditional guitars are played acoustically where the sound produced is a result of the vibration of the strings and modulated by a vacant body. Electric guitars produce an electronically manipulated tone when played through amplifiers. As the guitar strings are plucked, the guitar pickup senses the vibrations from the strings and sends along an electronic signal to the amplifier. The peaked reads the signal and converts it into a variable clear sound by boosting it through a speaker system. The guitar strings were made from cat bowels. These day strings are made from nylon, horse hair, bronze and steel.

Required materials

  • Empty matchbox
  • 4 small rubber bands
  • Balsa wood (very soft and light wood with a coarse open grain, suitable for carving)
  • Craft knife

Experiment Time : it takes About 15 to 30 minutes.

Procedure

1. Cut the piece of balsa wood into a flat triangular shape so that its length is a little longer than the width of the matchbox.

2. Place the triangle across the width of the matchbox so that the pointed end is hanging over. You don’t need the piece that is hanging over, so cut it off.

3. Lay the link on the closed matchbox. Open the matchbox so it’s about three-fourths open.

4. Put the rubber bands over the matchbox lengthwise and space them evenly. Make sure the rubber bands are tight. This can be done by opening the matchbox a little more.

5. Lift your bridge so that it stands up.

Result

The matchbox guitar is an example of a plucked string instrument which also includes mandolins, balalaikas and bass guitars. The instrument works by plucking the string with your finger tips. The different pitches are created by placing your finger at different points along the string to either shorten the pitch or lengthen it based on the vibration. The strength at which the strings are plucked also affects the frequency and pitch of the sound as it can create a larger vibration or a smaller vibration.

Coloured shadows

You will need

  • 3 small torches
  • Red, blue and green cellophane
  • Baking paper
  • Scissors
  • Sticky tape
  • White, vertical surface (such as a wall or door)
  • Small object (such as a cork or a salt shaker)

What to do

  1. Roughly measure the size of the front end of each one of your torches.
  2. Cut a square of red cellophane large enough so it will completely cover the end of the torch. Repeat this step by estimating and cutting a similar square of baking paper.
  3. Place the cellophane over the end of the torch and sticky tape its edges in place, so the light can pass through it. Place the baking paper over the cellophane and sticky tape it in place as well.
  4. Repeat the above steps for the blue and green cellophane giving you three torches that shine red, green and blue light. The baking paper diffuses the light, giving you an even glow.
  5. Find a dark room and a white surface. Turn on each torch and shine them on the same spot. What colour is the light?
  6. Put the small object in front of the torches.
  7. Glow only two torches on the same spot.

Candle Swing

Material Required

  • 1 Candle (cut from both the sides)
  • 2 Glass
  • 1 big needle
  • 1 matchbox

Experiment

  1. Cut off an ordinary candle on both sides so that you get to the wick.
  2. Stick a heated knitting needle in the middle of the length.
  3. Put the candle horizontal and put ends of a needle which stretch out of the candle on two glasses.
  4. When we light up both wicks, the candle starts to swing.
  5. When a drop of wax falls down on one side, the candle loses its balance and preponderates to the other side.
  6. There the flame grazes the candle, so that a drop of wax falls down also on this side.
  7. Candle loses its balance again and preponderates back again. So the candle swings until it runs short.

Wine and Water Exchange places:

Material Required

  • 1 Glass
  • Water
  • Wine Red
  • 1 Pasteboard

Experiment

  1. Cover up a glass of water with a thin pasteboard turn it over and put it on the glass of red wine.
  2. Brims of both glasses have to be completely covered.
  3. Pull out the carton to make a tiny gap between the glasses.
  4. Vine which is less dense than water immediately starts to lift up to the upper glass, while water slips to the lower glass.
  5. In a while the liquids will change sides all wine will be in the upper glass and water in the lower glass. The narrow gap doesn’t allow fluid mixing.

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